INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY OF METALS
  
 



LANGUAGE
  • Russian

  • INSTITUTE
  • Institute
  • Main directions of scientific research work
  • Structure
  • Contacts
  • Cooperation

  • DEVELOPMENTS OF THE INSTITUTE
  • Continuous casting
  • Freezing-up casting
  • Bimetals
  • Silumins
  • Simulation of casting processes
  • Water analog simulation of die casting
  • Electroslag casting

  • CORROSION
  • Development of diagnosis system of the metal surface damage
  • Development of prognosis system of the steel surface damage by the Light Section Profiling System (LSP system) in high-speed production process
  • Development of prognosis system of the steel bulk property claim by the magnetic detection method in continuous production process
  • Diagnosis system of quality control and process control by digital image analysis
  • Universal magnetic thickness gage
  • Development of anti-corrosive active polymer film for steel packing

  • COATINGS
  • Magnetic Impulse Hardening
  • Cladding
  • IMM (Induction Metallurgical Method) Surface Hardening
  • Thermal Spray Coating Process
  • Flame Spray
  • Detonation Flame Spraying
  • Nontransferred Plasma Arc Spraying
  • Electric Arc Spraying
  • Activated arc spray- Hypersonic metallization
  • High-Frequency Pulse Hardening of Surfaces
  • Wire Arc Coatings
  • Metallization Of Ferrites And Creation Of Fixed Compositions Ferrite-metal

  • TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT
  • Equipment For Surface Metallization And Blazing Of Oxide Materials
  • for continuous casting of cast iron and nonferrous metals
  • for battery grid casting
  • for continuous casting of CuCl belt
  • Plant for continuous casting of copper, aluminum, gold, silver, solder wires
  • DEVELOPMENTS OF THE INSTITUTE :: DEVELOPMENT OF DIAGNOSIS SYSTEM OF THE METAL SURFACE DAMAGE

    Abstract

    This project is dedicated to development of diagnosis system of the metal surface damage (corrosion, process defects, oil stain, topographical irregularities, etc) or deformation of steel products and compatibility solutions to enable large step improvements of productivity due to protect surface quality claim in advance and save production loss by automatic surface quality control system. The basic technical objective of this project phase I is identification and explanation of major compatibility issues between surface condition of any kind of metal and its digital image analysis by morphological interpretation of color, shape, and texture of surface damage in real time. Phase I is to demonstrate, by way of simulation tests of image analysis for surface defects, the tradeoffs associated with conflicting requirements of surface condition, for surface deformation from high stress or temperature of production process, surface defect from corrosion inhibition and materials fatigue life, wear resistance and corrosion resistance with lubricant for process of milling, forging, pressing, etc. The anticipated results of the project comprise key components of an advanced technology of diagnosis system of surface damage analysis and methodology of study of surface defect with mechanical properties. The project will result with: image capture and database establishment procedures for surface damages, data expert system with data query management, methodology of digital image analysis of morphological defects, classification methods of defined images, automatic on-line prognosis system for surface damage. The methodologies and experimental data that are conceived for the proposed investigation will allow selection of optimal condition of surface quality control and shape deformation.

    Anticipated Benefits


    This system can apply all kind of industrial production process and quality control process for detection and prevention of surface damage or outside defect of products.It will prevent the claim of production and increase the productivity of company, which are producing final stage of metal relating to surface.The superiority of this system is that 3 main digital image elements (color, texture, and shape) can combine for image detection case by case and define by multi-dimensional classification method.And it can adapt easily to user's hardware with low cost of image capture system. Handy scanner in on-line system will be useful for detection of surface damage and automatically can save all data to user's main computer that are interpreting database. Especially for detection of micro size defect, atomic force microscope or any kind of micro detect device can be applied in on-line system.In case of internal defect detection also, Digital signal from Magnetic Detector or Acoustic Device can be used for defect analysis by non-destructive method.

    Key words

    Digital image analysis, Image capturing system, Export system, Morphology, Surface damage, On-line Diagnosis, Multi-dimension classification, Lubrication, Material compatibility

    Identification and significance of the problem or opportunity

    The methods of evaluating surface damage and shape deformation existing at present are based primarily on gravimetric, probing and visual assessments. Their application often fails to identify adequately both the type and the extent of damage. Moreover, most of these methods are targeted at laboratory applications, frequently requiring specific preparation of specimens and excluding all chances of in situ studies.

    The review of publications indicates that the problem of evaluating the current condition of a unit, the distribution and the area of damaged spots, the depth of damage and the type of evolving defect, is specifically challenging for the purposes of industrial monitoring. Evaluation of these characteristics allows to determine the current condition of an article quite accurately and to conclude which actions are suitable for prevention or reconditioning. These methods should satisfy basic requirements of being compact, simple and implemental with the available equipment, and they should yield easily interpretable data. Still, though the problem is apparently essential, industries basically lack such instruments, and expert visual examination remains the most frequent tool of estimating surface damage. Hence, relevant means are needed to implement effective algorithms, to process, analyze and store the necessary information through the use of the state-of-the-art soft and hardware.

    The progress of the hardware and software during the last decade allows us to achieve a new solution of the problem of visual control of surface damage. Incorporation of imaging devices into interfaces, means of producing standard video signals, new compact digital solid body cameras and single-chip decoders of video signals are primary tools. They are assisted by the advent and intensive progress of multimedia capabilities in modern PC operating systems supporting the input functions and the routing of the flow of video signals in real time. Finally there are new effective algorithms of processing and identifying images.

    The morphological analysis of surface damage is one of the most widespread diagnostic methods in surface science. It is known, that morphology of damaged particles can indicate a type of damage process and current condition of materials. The most of the methods based on the analysis of the defect images, obtained by the optical or electron microscopy.

    The shape of damaged particles is usually described in terms of its area, perimeter, sizes of bounding rectangle, length of maximum and minimum radiuses from the center to border of a particle and etc. [1,2,3,]. These features are invariant to the rotation and translation of a pattern in a field of view and have reasonable simple interpretation. However, they not always describe objects in a unique fashion. It is possible to show there is a set of defect with identical areas, perimeters and form factors but different under the shape. By use of such type features the selection of representative set of them to assess the defected particle shape is complicated by insufficient a prori knowledge about correlation between shape and damage process. Simple adding new type of features will not help to solve this problem. It was shown that there is no algorithm for design and selection an optimal set of the features [4].

    At last time, a considerable amount of interest has been devoted to characterizing shape of contours by Fourier descriptors [5,6,7]. In this approach, features derived from the coefficients of Fourier transform. Inasmuch as the power spectrum is Fourier transform of autocorrelation function it can be used to measure statistical dependence of contours. It is possible to determine mean size, deviation of contour shape from a circle, average roughness of contour and many others parameters [8,9].

    In this work we are concentrate on the methods of shape characterization and their classification by the Fourier descriptors and distance measures. Use of spectral data requires the special approaches to their analysis based on the methods of spectrum estimation. For surface damage analysis it is necessary to have methods of classes description, their comparison and classification based on this type of features. Particularity of given work is consideration all of this problems from feature extraction to classifier design [10].

    The following major steps are involved. The first is a low level image processing for detection of the contour of the damaged area. The next is feature extraction. We calculate Fourier descriptors for contour shape characterization. The features are arranged as an ordered set or feature vector. The feature vector is considered as coordinates of a point in multi-dimensional space. The location of the point depends on the shape peculiarities of the damaged area. For shape differentiation the distance and similarity measures were used. The last was classification of damaged particles. Here a location of test point or cluster of points in the feature space examined and compared with the classes representatives. The hierarchical and k-means clustering algorithms and multi-dimensional scaling were used for classifier design. The performance of classifier was evaluated by using real set of damaged area.

    Phase I technical objectives

    This project is dedicated to development of diagnosis system of the metal surface damage or deformation and compatibility solutions to enable large step improvements of productivity due to protect surface quality claim in advance and save production loss by automatic surface quality control system. The basic technical objective of this project phase I is identification and explanation of major compatibility issues between surface condition of any kind of metal and its digital image analysis by morphological interpretation of color, shape, and texture of surface damage in real time. Specifically, Phase I is to demonstrate, by way of simulation tests of image capture for surface defects, the tradeoffs associated with conflicting requirements of surface condition, for surface deformation from high stress or temperature of production process, surface defect from corrosion inhibition and materials fatigue life, wear resistance and corrosion resistance with lubricant for process of milling, forging, pressing, etc.

    Phase I work plan


    In order to achieve the above-mentioned Phase I objectives, the following tasks will be performed, each of which will be described in detail below:

    Task 1. Development of image captures system and database establishment procedure for surface damage.
    Task 2. Development of data expert system with data query management.
    Task 3. Development of interpretation way of morphological defects for metal surface.
    Task 4. Selection of classification method of defined images.
    Task 5. Establishment of automatic on-line prognosis system for surface damage.
    Task 6. Preliminary testing of automatic on-line system in connection with main server.
    Task 7. Preparation of final report and phase II investigation plan.
     

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